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Apr 11, 2024

Advanced imaging techniques on a semiconductor material reveal ‘surprising’ hidden activity

Posted by in categories: mathematics, particle physics

“We found to our great surprise that this substrate is very much active, jiving and responding in completely surprising ways as the film switches from an insulator to a metal and back when the electrical pulses arrive,” Gopalan said. “This is like watching the tail wagging the dog, which stumped us for a long while. This surprising and previously overlooked observation completely changes how we need to view this technology.”

To understand these findings, the theory and simulation effort — led by Long-Qing Chen, Hamer Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, professor of engineering science and mechanics and of mathematics at Penn State — developed a theoretical framework to explain the entire process of the film and the substrate bulging instead of shrinking. When their model incorporated naturally occurring missing oxygen atoms in this material of two types, charged and uncharged, the experimental results could be satisfactorily explained.

“These neutral oxygen vacancies hold a charge of two electrons, which they can release when the material switches from an insulator to a metal,” Gopalan said. “The oxygen vacancy left behind is now charged and the crystal swells up, leading to the observed surprising bulging in the device. This response can also happen in the substrate. All of these physical processes are beautifully captured in the phase-field theory and modeling performed in this work for the first time by the postdoc Yin Shi in Prof. Chen’s group.”

Apr 11, 2024

Researchers call for a revamped fungal priority list to combat regional disease burdens

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, health

🌍🔬🍄


Study critiques the World Health Organization’s fungal priority pathogens list for not fully reflecting the global burden of fungal diseases, advocating for a revised list that considers regional disparities and elevates the priority of pathogens like Mucorales and Histoplasma spp. to better align with their impact on public health.

Apr 11, 2024

The compelling case for axions as our dark matter

Posted by in categories: cosmology, particle physics

The majority of the matter in our Universe isn’t made of any of the particles in the Standard Model. Could the axion save the day?

Apr 11, 2024

Asteroid 2024 GJ2 — Will It Hit Earth?

Posted by in categories: asteroid/comet impacts, education, existential risks, health

Discussions about asteroid 2024 GJ2 near miss with Earth on 11 Apr 24, and asteroids Apophis, Bennu, potential impacts and more!

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Apr 11, 2024

AlphaGeometry: An Olympiad-level AI system for geometry

Posted by in categories: education, mathematics, robotics/AI

From U tubingen and cambridge U

Wu’s Method can Boost Symbolic AI to Rival Silver Medalists and AlphaGeometry to Outperform Gold Medalists at IMO Geometry https://arxiv.org/abs/2404.

- Wu’s…

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Apr 11, 2024

Tumor microbiomes offer new insights for enhancing cancer therapies

Posted by in category: biotech/medical

🧬🔬💊


Comprehensive review reveals the significant impact of tumor-resident bacteria on metastatic cancer, showing how microbiome genomes influence tumor biology, immune system response, and treatment effectiveness. It lays the groundwork for utilizing bacteria-focused therapies to complement traditional cancer treatments.

Apr 11, 2024

Pituitary Apoplexy in Macroadenoma After Minor Surgery: An Unusual Case and Literature Review

Posted by in category: biotech/medical

Dive into this newest article featuring an unique case study of Pituitary Apoplexy in Macroadenoma following minor surgery. Explore more by tapping the link 👉


Pituitary apoplexy is a rare and severe complication of pituitary adenoma that may present with new-onset headache, ocular palsy, visual disturbances, life-threatening electrolyte imbalance, and endocrinological disturbances due to pituitary hemorrhage and/or infarction.

We report the case of a 58-year-old previously healthy patient who developed isolated mild oculomotor nerve palsy of the left eye following osteosynthesis of a traumatic right distal radius fracture. Initial cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed a pituitary macroadenoma without characteristic signs of pituitary infarction or hemorrhage. The patient presented to the neurology department on the fifth postoperative day with malaise and fatigue due to pituitary insufficiency, deteriorated rapidly and required intensive care monitoring.

Continue reading “Pituitary Apoplexy in Macroadenoma After Minor Surgery: An Unusual Case and Literature Review” »

Apr 10, 2024

Paper page — Leave No Context Behind: Efficient Infinite Context Transformers with Infini-attention

Posted by in category: futurism

Google announces Leave No Context Behind.

Efficient Infinite Context Transformers with Infini-attention.

This work introduces an efficient method to scale Transformer-based Large Language Models (LLMs) to infinitely long inputs with bounded memory and…

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Apr 10, 2024

The proton engine Einstein predicted, created for the first time: challenges the laws of the universe and makes cars sustainable

Posted by in categories: nuclear energy, physics, space, sustainability

Do you know what they’ve discovered? This is the proton engine that Einstein predicted decades ago and that, for the first time, they’ve managed to materialize. The best part? It challenges even the laws of physics and the universe, and it’s going to decarbonize transportation.

Nuclear fusion has long been a sought-after but elusive goal for science. It involves joining atomic nuclei to release energy, the same process that occurs in the Sun and other stars. In fact, it’s a process similar to what we saw two weeks ago with the plasma engine.

Unlike nuclear fission used in current nuclear power plants—which, remember, we are highly critical of due to its lack of being an eco-friendly or renewable option—fusion offers the promise of a virtually inexhaustible and clean energy source.

Apr 10, 2024

Physicists track how continuous changes in dimensionality affect collective properties of a superfluid

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

An international research team from Innsbruck and Geneva has, for the first time, probed the dimensional crossover for ultracold quantum matter. In the regime between one and two dimensions, the quantum particles perceive their world as being 1D or 2D depending on the length scale on which they are probed: For short distances, their world is 1D, but it is 2D for long distances.

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