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Dec 6, 2022

Improving precision of pressure determination in nanosecond X-ray diffraction experiments

Posted by in categories: physics, space

X-ray diffraction measurements under laser-driven dynamic compression allow researchers to investigate the atomic structure of matter at hundreds of thousands of atmospheres of pressure and temperatures of thousands of degrees, with broad implications for condensed matter physics, planetary science and astronomy.

Pressure determination in these experiments often relies on velocimetry measurements coupled with modeling that requires accurate knowledge of the optical and thermomechanical properties of a window material, resulting in significant systematic uncertainty.

In new research published in Physical Review B, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists report on a series of X-ray diffraction experiments on five metals dynamically compressed to 600 GPa (6,000,000 atmospheres of pressure). In addition to collecting atomic structure information for multiple compressed samples, the team demonstrated a different approach for pressure determination applicable to X-ray diffraction experiments under quasi-isentropic ramp compression.

Dec 6, 2022

Construction Begins on World’s Biggest Radio Telescope, Set to Observe the ‘Epoch of Reionization’

Posted by in category: space

The intercontinental Square Kilometer Array will comprise thousands of dishes to image vast swathes of the sky.

Dec 6, 2022

The future of replacement organs is (quite possibly) here: Robust human intestinal organoids created in a lab

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, life extension

Growing miniature organ-like tissues in the lab is already within our reach. Now, researchers from Japan have developed a new approach that enables intestinal mini-organs to be grown more easily and efficiently in the lab. This holds immense promise for regenerative medicine.

In a study published in November in Cell Reports Methods, researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) reveal that applying a few specialized lab techniques yields intestine-like tissues of predictable size and composition.

Organoids are organ-like balls of cells that are grown in the lab from spheroids (even smaller balls) of and mimic the properties of the organ from which the “seed” cell was taken. Organoids are used for studying organ function in a lab setting and are also promising tools in the field of regenerative medicine.

Dec 6, 2022

Discovered The Oldest Forest In The World, Dating Back 386 Million Years

Posted by in category: futurism

Ruins of an ancient forest have been identified at a quarry near Cairo, New York, USA. The fossils have been dated to 386 million years old, making them the oldest known fossils.

Dec 6, 2022

Scientists delighted after failing to detect key signal from space

Posted by in category: space

Scientists have failed to detect a key signal from space – and used it to explain some of the earliest parts of the universe.

The inability to pick up the signal has allowed researchers to better understand the first galaxies to exist. It is one of the first times they have been able to study the period known as the “cosmic dawn”, when the first stars and galaxies came into being.

Scientists are now able to place limits on the mass and energy coming out of those first stars and galaxies – using a counterintuitive method.

Dec 6, 2022

Surprising Finding: New Study Yields Clues to Genetic Causes of High Cholesterol

Posted by in categories: genetics, health

According to a recent study conducted by geneticists at the University of Pittsburgh School of Public Health in collaboration with several other organizations, including the University of Otago and the Samoan health research community, the discovery of a genetic variant that is relatively common among individuals of Polynesian descent but very rare in most other populations is providing clues to the genetic underpinnings of high cholesterol in all people.

Dec 6, 2022

‘It’s getting dark’: ‘Good Night Oppy’ recounts the sudden death of a Mars rover

Posted by in category: space

In the opening scenes of the new film “Good Night Oppy,” the Opportunity rover rolls along through Perseverance Valley on Mars in June 2018, as “Roam” by The B-52s fills the room at mission control.

The peppy tune was the rover’s wake-up song, played at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. In the same way NASA has used a song to wake up astronauts each day they spend in space since the 1960s, the Opportunity rover team began their daily shifts with a song that set the mood for “Oppy’s” journey.

But a storm brewing on the horizon changed everything.

Continue reading “‘It’s getting dark’: ‘Good Night Oppy’ recounts the sudden death of a Mars rover” »

Dec 6, 2022

X-rays reveal elusive chemistry for better electric vehicle batteries

Posted by in categories: chemistry, energy, nanotechnology, sustainability, transportation

Researchers around the world are on a mission to relieve a bottleneck in the clean energy revolution: batteries. From electric vehicles to renewable grid-scale energy storage, batteries are at the heart of society’s most crucial green innovations—but they need to pack more energy to make these technologies widespread and practical.

Now, a team of scientists led by chemists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has unraveled the complex chemical mechanisms of a component that is crucial for boosting energy density: the interphase. Their work published today in Nature Nanotechnology.

Dec 6, 2022

Remarkable JWST trick lets us “see” dark matter

Posted by in category: cosmology

It’s not only the gravity from galaxies in a cluster that reveal dark matter, but the ejected, intracluster stars actually trace it out.

Dec 6, 2022

Latest Webb Results Could Literally Break All Cosmology

Posted by in categories: cosmology, physics

The James Webb Space Telescope has finally made its first dark matter observations, and the results could lead us to new physics. They have questioned our understanding of dark matter and the large-scale structure-formation of the Universe. Dark matter is one of the most mysterious entities in the cosmos. Our best cosmological models show that 27% of the observable Universe is made of dark matter. We can’t see it, but its existence can be inferred because of its effect on surrounding baryonic matter. The true nature of dark matter is still one of the biggest mysteries in cosmology. The most successful cosmological model to date, the lambda cold dark matter or the LCDM model, makes a critical prediction regarding dark matter. It says that cold dark matter played an important role to form the large-scale structures we observe today.

So far, we did not have the technology to test this prediction. But the James Webb Space Telescope opened the windows to the first billion years and the last unexplored era in the history of the Universe. The super-early galaxies discovered by Webb in its Early Release Science program provided an opportunity to test the predictions made by the LCDM model. And when astronomers did that, the results were completely unexpected. So what do these primordial galaxies discovered by Webb tell us? What did Webb find in its first dark matter observations? Finally, and most importantly, how can these results change the course of cosmology?

Continue reading “Latest Webb Results Could Literally Break All Cosmology” »

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