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Jul 14, 2024

A tunable room-temperature nonlinear Hall effect in elemental bismuth thin films

Posted by in category: space travel

Room temperature mag levitation for hoverboards that is tunable also cars or spacecraft.

Polycrystalline thin films of elemental bismuth exhibit a room-temperature nonlinear transverse voltage due to geometric effects of surface electrons that is tunable and can be extended to efficient high-harmonic generation at terahertz frequencies.

Jul 14, 2024

AI-generated jokes funnier than those created by humans, University of Southern California study finds

Posted by in category: robotics/AI

Researchers from the University of Southern California found that jokes crafted by ChatGPT performed better than those written by humans.

Jul 14, 2024

Oxygen tweaking may be key to accelerator optimization

Posted by in category: particle physics

Particle accelerators are pricey, but their cost comes with good reason: These one-of-a-kind, state-of-the-art machines are intricately designed and constructed to help us solve mysteries about what makes up our universe. Still, the scientists and engineers building these machines must do their best to save where they can. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility are supporting this mission by figuring out how to optimize cavities, one of the most critical parts of an accelerator.

Jul 14, 2024

Scientists probe chilling behavior of promising solid-state cooling material

Posted by in categories: food, materials

A research team led by the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory has bridged a knowledge gap in atomic-scale heat motion. This new understanding holds promise for enhancing materials to advance an emerging technology called solid-state cooling.

An environmentally friendly innovation, solid-state cooling could efficiently chill many things in daily life from food to vehicles to electronics — without traditional refrigerant liquids and gases or moving parts. The system would operate via a quiet, compact and lightweight system that allows precise temperature control.

Although the discovery of improved materials and the invention of higher-quality devices are already helping to promote the growth of the new cooling method, a deeper understanding of material enhancements is essential. The research team used a suite of neutron-scattering instruments to examine at the atomic scale a material that scientists consider to be an optimal candidate for use in solid-state cooling.

Jul 14, 2024

Open-TeleVision: Robot control system integrates human intuition with VR

Posted by in categories: robotics/AI, virtual reality

MIT and UC San Diego’s Open-TeleVision tech enhances remote robotic control by integrating human intuition with VR.

Jul 14, 2024

Quantum Revelations: Unveiling New Layers of the Higgs Boson

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

New research confirms the Standard Model’s predictions about the Higgs boson while suggesting future data may reveal unknown aspects of particle physics.

The Higgs boson was discovered in the detectors of the Large Hadron Collider a dozen or so years ago. It has proved to be a particle so difficult to produce and observe that, despite the passage of time, its properties are still not known with satisfactory accuracy. Now we know a little more about its origin, thanks to the just-published achievement of an international group of theoretical physicists with the participation of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences.

Higgs Boson Discovery

Jul 14, 2024

Neural Networks Made of Light: Photon Power Drives the Next AI Revolution

Posted by in category: robotics/AI

A new optical system for neural networks has been developed by the Max Planck Institute, offering a simpler and more energy-efficient alternative to current methods.

This system uses light transmission to perform computations, reducing the complexity and energy demands associated with traditional neural networks.

Optical Neural Networks

Jul 14, 2024

Decoding the Enigma: Origins of Superconductivity in High-Temperature Cuprates

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, materials

Superconductors are materials capable of conducting electricity without any resistance when they are cooled below a specific temperature known as the critical temperature. These materials are used in various applications such as power grids, maglev trains, and medical imaging equipment. High-temperature superconductors, which operate at higher critical temperatures than conventional superconductors, hold great promise for enhancing these technologies. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms of their superconductivity are not yet fully understood.

Copper oxides or cuprates, a class of high-temperature superconductors, exhibit superconductivity when electrons and holes (vacant spaces left behind by electrons) are introduced into their crystal structure through a process called doping. Interestingly, in the low-doped state, with less-than-optimal electrons required for superconductivity, a pseudogap ­­–a partial gap in the electronic structure– opens. This pseudogap is considered a potential factor in the origin of superconductivity in these materials.

Jul 14, 2024

Century-Old Biological Experiment Reveals Genetic Secrets of Important Crop

Posted by in categories: biological, evolution, food, genetics

A long-term study since 1929 has revealed significant insights into barley’s evolution, showing its adaptation to different environments and the substantial impact of natural selection. This research underscores the limitations of evolutionary breeding and highlights the need for further exploration to enhance crop yields.

Utilizing one of the world’s oldest biological experiments, which commenced in 1929, researchers have revealed how barley, a major crop, has been influenced by agricultural pressures and its evolving natural environment. These findings highlight the significance of long-term studies in comprehending the dynamics of adaptive evolution.

The survival of cultivated plants after their dispersal across different environments is a classic example of rapid adaptive evolution. For example, barley, an important neolithic crop, spread widely after domestication over 10,000 years ago to become a staple source of nutrition for humans and livestock throughout Europe, Asia, and Northern Africa over just a few thousand generations. Such rapid expansion and cultivation have subjected the plant to strong selective pressures, including artificial selection for desired traits and natural selection by being forced to adapt to diverse new environments.

Jul 14, 2024

Pioneering Study Reveals 3D Quantum Hall Effects in Weyl Acoustic Crystals

Posted by in category: quantum physics

A new study has demonstrated the three-dimensional quantum Hall effect in acoustic waves using a Weyl acoustic crystal, marking the first observation of one-dimensional edge states and opening avenues for advanced acoustic device development.

The quantum Hall effect (QHE) stands as a landmark discovery in condensed matter physics, paving the way for the exploration of topological physics. Advancing QHE into three dimensions presents an exciting yet formidable challenge. The complication stems from the fact that, in three dimensions, Landau levels evolve into bands along the magnetic field direction, which obstructs the formation of bulk gaps.

Recently, a feasible scheme has been proposed in Weyl semimetals, whose Fermi arc states on opposite surfaces are connected through the bulk Weyl points to form a complete Fermi loop, and under the magnetic field, one-dimensional edge states are induced on the boundary of the opposite surface. However, the unique edge states have yet to be experimentally observed.

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