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Mar 30, 2023

New study discovers how to reverse hearing loss

Posted by in category: futurism

Baby mice can regenerate damaged hair cells — and now that we know how they do it, maybe we can, too in order to reverse hearing loss.

Mar 29, 2023

Proteomic Analysis of Huntington’s Disease Medium Spiny Neurons Identifies Alterations in Lipid Droplets

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. The resulting polyglutamine (polyQ) tract alters the function of the HTT protein. Although HTT is expressed in different tissues, the medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs) in the striatum are particularly vulnerable in HD. Thus, we sought to define the proteome of human HD patient–derived MSNs. We differentiated HD72 induced pluripotent stem cells and isogenic controls into MSNs and carried out quantitative proteomic analysis. Using data-dependent acquisitions with FAIMS for label-free quantification on the Orbitrap Lumos mass spectrometer, we identified 6,323 proteins with at least two unique peptides. Of these, 901 proteins were altered significantly more in the HD72-MSNs than in isogenic controls. Functional enrichment analysis of upregulated proteins demonstrated extracellular matrix and DNA signaling (DNA replication pathway, double-strand break repair, G1/S transition) with the highest significance. Conversely, processes associated with the downregulated proteins included neurogenesis-axogenesis, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor-signaling pathway, Ephrin-A: EphA pathway, regulation of synaptic plasticity, triglyceride homeostasis cholesterol, plasmid lipoprotein particle immune response, interferon-γ signaling, immune system major histocompatibility complex, lipid metabolism and cellular response to stimulus. Moreover, proteins involved in the formation and maintenance of axons, dendrites, and synapses (e.g., Septin protein members) were dysregulated in HD72-MSNs. Importantly, lipid metabolism pathways were altered, and using quantitative image, we found analysis that lipid droplets accumulated in the HD72-MSN, suggesting a deficit in the turnover of lipids possibly through lipophagy. Our proteomics analysis of HD72-MSNs identified relevant pathways that are altered in MSNs and confirm current and new therapeutic targets for HD.

Mar 29, 2023

Method for improving seasonal flu vaccines also aids pandemic prediction

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, health

Improving the seasonal influenza vaccine and public health specialists’ ability to predict pandemic potential in new flu strains may be possible, due to new findings from scientists at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. The key is the stability of a viral protein that gains entry into human cells. The findings were published today in Science Advances.

“We found that the protein flu viruses use to enter cells, hemagglutinin, needs to be relatively stable and resistant to acid in an effective H3N2 flu vaccine,” said senior and co-corresponding author Charles Russell, Ph.D., St. Jude Department of Infectious Diseases. “We found a mutation in hemagglutinin that makes the grow better in eggs also causes a mismatch in the vaccine. The mutation makes the virus unstable and makes it look less human-like.”

The H3N2 virus is a subtype of Influenza A and is one of the culprits behind the seasonal flu. Many flu vaccines are made by growing the virus in chicken eggs, but the virus can gain mutations during that process. Some of those changes, like the one uncovered by the St. Jude group, make the vaccine less effective in generating the ideal immune response. At the same time, other mutations have more beneficial impacts.

Mar 29, 2023

Pathogenic genetic variations found to boost the risk of H. pylori–related stomach cancer

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, genetics

A large case-control study by international researchers at the RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS) in Japan has found that people who carry certain genetic risk factors for gastric (stomach) cancer have a much greater risk if they have also been infected by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. The study, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, could contribute to the development of tailored genomic medicine for treating stomach cancer.

Stomach is the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide and has both environmental and . Environmentally, infection by H. pylori increases the risk of . Because the virulence of H. pylori in East Asia is high, the incidence of stomach cancer is higher in countries like Japan. Genetically, while hereditary gene variation is why we have different colored eyes and are unique as individuals, sometimes gene variants are associated with the risk of disease. For example, individuals who carry a certain hereditary pathogenic variant of the CDH1 gene have an increased risk of .

Testing for the presence of pathogenic variants is now one of several measures being taken for cancer prevention, surveillance, and treatment selection. However, because large-scale, case-control studies are lacking, and because those that exist have not assessed how the risk for stomach cancer changes when pathogenic variants interact with like H. pylori, it remains unclear what actual clinical measures can be taken. To address this issue, researchers therefore evaluated the risk of gastric cancer in a large case-control study of Japanese people, considering whether they were carriers of pathogenic variants and whether they had been infected by H. pylori.

Continue reading “Pathogenic genetic variations found to boost the risk of H. pylori–related stomach cancer” »

Mar 29, 2023

Room-temperature superconductors could revolutionize electronics — an electrical engineer explains the materials’ potential

Posted by in categories: computing, nuclear energy

Superconductors make highly efficient electronics, but the ultralow temperatures and ultrahigh pressures required to make them work are costly and difficult to implement. Room-temperature superconductors promise to change that.

The recent announcement by researchers at the University of Rochester of a new material that is a superconductor at room temperature, albeit at high pressure, is an exciting development – if proved. If the material or one like it works reliably and can be economically mass-produced, it could revolutionize electronics.

Continue reading “Room-temperature superconductors could revolutionize electronics — an electrical engineer explains the materials’ potential” »

Mar 29, 2023

Instruct 3D-to-3D: Text Instruction Guided 3D-to-3D conversion

Posted by in category: futurism

Our Instruct 3D-to-3D is able to convert a 3D scene according to the text instruction.

Mar 29, 2023

Dr. Jennifer Garrison: Reproductive longevity, Aging, R&D, funding — Learning with Lowell

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, life extension

Jennifer Garrison is an assistant professor at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging and also holds appointments in the Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology at University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) and the Davis School of Gerontology at the University of Southern California.

Over 321 books from 170 plus interviews over 5 years.…todidacts/

Continue reading “Dr. Jennifer Garrison: Reproductive longevity, Aging, R&D, funding — Learning with Lowell” »

Mar 29, 2023

Transition Vs Transversion Mutations

Posted by in category: futurism

This video explains transition vs transversion mutations.

Thank You For Watching.

Continue reading “Transition Vs Transversion Mutations” »

Mar 29, 2023

Downregulation of Dystrophin Expression Occurs across Diverse Tumors, Correlates with the Age of Onset, Staging and Reduced Survival of Patients

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, genetics

Altered dystrophin expression was found in some tumors and recent studies identified a developmental onset of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Given that embryogenesis and carcinogenesis share many mechanisms, we analyzed a broad spectrum of tumors to establish whether dystrophin alteration evokes related outcomes. Transcriptomic, proteomic, and mutation datasets from fifty tumor tissues and matching controls (10,894 samples) and 140 corresponding tumor cell lines were analyzed. Interestingly, dystrophin transcripts and protein expression were found widespread across healthy tissues and at housekeeping gene levels. In 80% of tumors, DMD expression was reduced due to transcriptional downregulation and not somatic mutations. The full-length transcript encoding Dp427 was decreased in 68% of tumors, while Dp71 variants showed variability of expression.

Mar 29, 2023

Would building a Dyson sphere be worth it? We ran the numbers

Posted by in categories: alien life, bitcoin, nuclear energy, solar power, sustainability

In 1960, visionary physicist Freeman Dyson proposed that an advanced alien civilization would someday quit fooling around with kindergarten-level stuff like wind turbines and nuclear reactors and finally go big, completely enclosing their home star to capture as much solar energy as they possibly could. They would then go on to use that enormous amount of energy to mine bitcoin, make funny videos on social media, delve into the deepest mysteries of the Universe, and enjoy the bounties of their energy-rich civilization.

But what if the alien civilization was… us? What if we decided to build a Dyson sphere around our sun? Could we do it? How much energy would it cost us to rearrange our solar system, and how long would it take to get our investment back? Before we put too much thought into whether humanity is capable of this amazing feat, even theoretically, we should decide if it’s worth the effort. Can we actually achieve a net gain in energy by building a Dyson sphere?

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